Year 9 – Grammar HW – Punctuation Revision

Year 9 Week 3: Punctuation revision

Revise the following information from Year 7 and 8:

Brackets (they are also called parenthesis) go around extra information that you want to keep separate from the main sentence. If you take out the bit in between the brackets, the sentence should still make sense.

When we first travelled to Russia (in 2010), we didn’t have an interpreter.

The DVLA (Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency) will provide you with your provisional drivers’ licence.

There is also an example in the first sentence on this sheet!

Two dashes can also add extra information:

The couriers – Dave Jones and Rachel Hobbs – drove the van into the car park at 10am.

A single dash can give you a dramatic pause:

England could not fail to win – until they played Iceland.

Hyphens look very similar to the dash but they are not the same. A hyphen is used to join words or parts of words together.

  1. a) They can be used to join a prefix to a root word where the root word begins with the same letter as the prefix ends with:

e.g.   co-own     re-enter

  1. b) They can also be used to join a prefix to a root word that would have a capital letter e.g.

pro-French                       post-Tudor                                         pre-Elizabethan

  1. c) You also need hyphens to link words together where the meaning might otherwise be unclear.

For instance,

  • A man eating squid.                               Would mean that a man was eating a squid!
  • A man-eating squid.                           Would be describing a squid that eats people!
  1. d) You would also use them to join words that rely on each other to make sense.

For instance,

  • A three-year-old child
  • A used-car salesman

Other examples:

  • vice-president
  • part-time
  • thirty-seven
  • middle-aged
  • mother-in-law
  • ex-girlfriend

Speech marks

We use speech marks for direct speech – what a person actually says.

e.g. John said, “I understand.”

We don’t use speech marks for reported speech – when you report indirectly what a person has said

e.g. Anna said that she would go with him.

Capital letter

When writing speech, the first word spoken always starts with a capital letter.

e.g. She said, “My hamster has run away.”

Punctuation before speech

If there are words before the speech (as in the example above), use a comma to introduce the speech – this should come before the speech marks.

e.g. She said, “My hamster has run away.”

Punctuation after speech   You must always have punctuation at the end of speech.

This could be:

A full stop if the sentence ends with the speech. e.g.

Peter said, “I would like to try.”

A comma if the sentence does not end with the speech e.g.

“That’s my bag,” he said.

A question mark if the speech ends in a question, even if the sentence continues. e.g.

“What’s it for?” he asked.

An explanation mark if there has been a strong feeling expressed, even if the sentence continues. e.g.

“It’s a goal!” she shouted.

 

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