Year 9 Grammar – Revise the main word classes

Year 9, Week 6 – Revise the main word classes:

Nouns: These are words for things.

Common nouns are words that name a type of person or thing e.g. dog, caretaker, man, clarinet, doctor.

Proper nouns are words are the names of particular people and places, groups, months and days of the week. They always have a capital letter.

e.g. Arsenal, January, Tuesday, Jonathan, London

Collective nouns are words for a group of things.

e.g. pack of wolves, pride of lions, school of fish, bunch of flowers, herd of cows, fleet of lorries

Abstract nouns are things, ideas or concepts that you cannot touch, see or hear.

e.g. anger, happiness, freedom, joy, life, truth, boredom, wish, confusion

Verbs: These are words for actions

e.g. kick, wish, jump, eat, throw, shout

They are also words for being, using the verb to be

e.g. am, is, were, are, was

Verbs can help to form the active voice when the person doing the verb comes before the verb e.g.

e.g. Darren made a lasagne.

In the passive voice, the person doing the verb comes after the verb. Darren is no longer the subject of the sentence but he is still doing the verb.

e.g. The lasagne was made by Darren.

 

Adjectives: Adjectives help to describe nouns.

e.g. The blue hat looked best.                    I was very anxious.                          The ice-cream was huge.

Comparative adjectives COMPARE things to other things

e.g. good                                            has a comparative adjective :                                    better

Superlative adjectives compare things to other things by saying that they are the most successful at what they do!

e.g. good                                             has a superlative adjective:                                         best

You may remember that there are different spelling rules to forming comparative and superlative adjectives.

Adjective Comparative adjective Superlative adjective
tall tall + er     = taller tall + est = tallest
large large + r = larger large + st = largest
big big + g+er = bigger big + g + est = biggest

Two syllable (and more) adjectives do not change like this. Instead, you add more or most to make the comparative and superlative forms.

Beautiful                                                     More beautiful                                                         most beautiful

 

Adverbs

Adverbs help to describe verbs.

e.g. He walked away slowly.       Or       Suddenly, I could see further.

Most adverbs end in –ly but not all. For instance, John came home late. Late is an adverb as it qualifies how John does the verb.

Adverbs can also help to describe adjectives.

Very, really and quite are all adverbs that help to describe adjectives:

e.g. a very happy dog

Adverbs can also help to describe other adverbs

e.g. Aisha runs really slowly.

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